Medicine Plants

To understand the type and health of indigenous medicine plants, the Joint Stewardship Board contracted Indigenous Consulting and Training to conduct an inventory and develop a recovery plan for medicines in the Red Hill Valley. Throughout 2006 and 2007, Haudenosaunee plant specialists searched the valley and determined the availability and absence of numerous medicine plants. Protection efforts for threatened plant stands involved seed recovery, replanting or relocation of some rare or significant species (e.g., Sweet Fern, Ladies Fern, Sassafras).


Shown below is a sample of the plants contained in the valley including their common, mohawk, and latin names.


#1  Actaea_rubra

Common Name: Red Maple

Mohawk Name: Wahta’kenra

Latin Name: Acer rubrum

Acer rubrum (Red Maple, also known as Swamp, Water or Soft Maple) is one of the most common and widespread deciduous trees of eastern North America. Red Maple showing fall foliage

#2  Acer saccharum saccharum

Common Name: Sugar Maple

Mohawk Name: Wahta

Latin Name: Acer saccharum saccharum

Acer saccharum(sugar maple) is a species ofmaple native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southernOntario, and south to Georgia and Texas.

#3  Actaea_erythrocarpa0

Common Name: Red Baneberry

Mohawk Name: Onegwundara’ niyuhiodun

Latin Name: Actaea rubra

Actaea rubra (red baneberry, chinaberry, doll’s eye) is a poisonous herbaceous flowering plant in the family Ranunculaceae, native to North America.

#4  Allium_canadense

Common Name: Canada Wild Onion

Mohawk Name: Ononkseri

Latin Name: Allium canadense

Wild onion (Allium canadense), also known as Canada onion, wild garlic, meadow garlic, and Canadian garlic,[1] is a perennial plant native to North America. It has an edible bulb covered with a dense skin of brown fibers and tastes like an onion.

#5  Allium tricoccum

Common Name: Wild Leek

Mohawk Name: O’nohsowa:nes (Seneca)

Latin Name: Allium tricoccum

Allium tricoccum (commonly known as ramp,[1] ramps, spring onion, ramson, wild leek,[1] wood leek,[1] and wild garlic) is an early spring vegetable, a perennial wild onion with a strong garlic-like odor and a pronounced onion flavor.

#6  Alnus_incana_rugosa_leaves

Common Name: Speckled Alder

Mohawk Name: Onenhara (red)

Latin Name: Alnus incana

Alnus incana (Grey Alder or Speckled Alder) is a species of alder with a wide range across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere. It is a small to medium size tree 15–20 metres (49–66 ft) tall with smooth grey bark even in old age, its life span being a maximum of 60–100 years.

#7  Ambrosia_trifida_(inflorescences)

Common Name: Giant Ragweed

Mohawk Name: Oo dee neh threh (Tuscarora)

Latin Name: Ambrosia trifida


#8--2 Amelanchier_arborea_sarvis_close  #2

Common Name: June Berry

Mohawk Name: Ha-donh (Seneca)

Latin Name: Amelanchier arborea

Downy serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea), closeup of flowers showing cuplike base, 5 narrow white petals, 5-compound pistil, many stamens, and downy hairs on young leaves and twigs. Also called “sarvis”, or “shadbush” because it blooms in early spring when the shad are running in the rivers. Duke Forest Durham Division, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

#9  Amelanchier_laevis

Common Name: Smooth Juneberry

Mohawk Name: Ha’donh (Seneca)

Latin Name: Amelanchier laevis

Amelanchier laevis bark and leaf

Amelanchier laevis (commonly known as the smooth shadbush or Allegheny serviceberry) is a small tree, growing up to 9 metres (30 ft). The fruit, which are pomes, are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. The fruit has a sweet flavor. The bark can be made into a herbal medicine for expectant mothers. It is a deciduous tree.

#10  VirginiaAnemoneLow

Common Name: Thimbleweed

Mohawk Name: Enisnosoruks

Latin Name: Anemone virginiana

Anemone virginiana is an upright growing herbaceous plant species in the genus Anemone and family Ranunculaceae. Plants grow 30–80 centimetres (12–31 in) tall, flowering early summer but often found flowering till late summer, the flowers are white or greenish-white.